Hybrid CoE Working Paper 7: Quantum Sciences – Disruptive Innovation in Hybrid Warfare

by Ralph Thiele - March 19, 2020

“Quantum technologies will lead to enormously improved computing, communication, cryptography, navigation, and sensing capabilities that will enable hybrid actors to push the envelope of hybrid aggression”, argues Ralph Thiele. Technological trends suggest that the portfolio of hybrid hazards will rapidly expand. With their disruptive potential, they open up new avenues for violence, as well as for the use of… Read more


Hybrid CoE Working Paper 6: Artificial Intelligence – A Key Enabler of Hybrid Warfare

by Ralph Thiele - March 4, 2020

Technological trends suggest that the portfolio of hybrid hazards will rapidly expand. With their disruptive potential, they open up new avenues for violence, as well as for the use of force in a hybrid warfare/conflict environment. New technologies have a catalytic effect on hybrid methods and tools. They improve the starting conditions for hybrid action, expand the… Read more



by Tiia Lohela and Valentin Schatz (eds.) - November 22, 2019

The report illustrates how public international law, and specifically the international law of the sea, can be harnessed as a tool for detrimental security measures at sea. By juxtaposing the rights contained in the inter­national maritime law, the malicious hybrid actor has the opportunity to create a confusing and challenging situation, in which the target… Read more


Hybrid Threats and Vulnerabilities of Modern Critical Infrastructure – Weapons of Mass Disturbance (WMDi)?

by Jukka Savolainen - November 22, 2019

The report takes stock of Critical Infrastructure-related lessons identified and learned during a two-year assessment done by the Community of Interest for Vulnerabilities and Resilience in the European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats. Modern Critical Infrastructure seemingly serves as an effective instrument in the hands of adversaries able and willing to use hybrid… Read more


Building Resilience: Hybrid’s Weakness?

by Roger Clarke & Owen Jackson - April 24, 2019

The fluidity of ‘Hybrid Threats’ makes them hard to theoretically grasp, and practically counter. This Working Paper encourages security practitioners to draw on insights from established work on resilience and civil preparedness. Resilience ensures that households, communities, societies, infrastructure and states are able to withstand and recover from shocks. Building resilience is an important part… Read more


From Nudge to Novichok: The response to the Skripal nerve agent attack holds lessons for countering hybrid threats

by Sir David Omand - April 18, 2018

The attempted murder of Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia using a military grade nerve agent known as Novichok is an extreme manifestation of an “active measure” of a type for which the Russian state has been responsible in the past. The combination of the known Russian association with the development of the Novichok nerve… Read more


Regional Cooperation to Support National Hybrid Defence Efforts

by Juha Mustonen Aapo Cederberg Pasi Eronen - October 19, 2017

Hybrid CoE working paper to EU-NATO workshop, which served as feed in to NATO’s on-going Baltic Sea process and EU’s work on preparing a hybrid risk survey. The Paper was prepared to serve as food for thought for the workshop and is now published with key takeaways from the workshop.