This Hybrid CoE Working Paper examines Moldova’s struggle to counter Russia’s hybrid threat operations in the current confrontation between autocracies and democracies. The paper explores Russia’s escalated hybrid threat tactics since the 2021 victory of Moldova’s pro-European Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS), analyzing the impact across all 13 hybrid threat domains. Moldova’s internal vulnerabilities, particularly regarding its public administration and national identity, are highlighted as areas exploited by Russian influence. On the other hand, the paper showcases Moldova’s growing autonomy, notably its liberation from Russian energy dependence. The paper advocates hands-on European support to build Moldova’s governance and institutional capacity to steer the country towards a democratic and self-reliant future.
A medium-length paper covering work in progress. Develops and shares ideas on Hybrid CoE’s ongoing research/workstrand themes, or analyzes actors, events or concepts that are relevant from the point of view of hybrid threats.