This Hybrid CoE Working Paper delves into the ways in which China has utilized economic coercion to secure its goals in Southeast Asia. Since the early 2010s, China has emerged as a more proactive user of economic statecraft. Specifically, Beijing has become more confident in using economic tools to compel countries to behave in a manner that suits its interests through practices such as trade and tourism restrictions. China both compels countries to behave in a certain way through economic punishments (sticks) and uses economic inducements (carrots) to indirectly convince other states to behave in a manner conducive to its interests.
A medium-length paper covering work in progress. Develops and shares ideas on Hybrid CoE’s ongoing research/workstrand themes, or analyzes actors, events or concepts that are relevant from the point of view of hybrid threats.