As finance and geopolitical competition have become increasingly intertwined, Western policymakers and strategists need to consider how financial markets, institutions, and players relate to hybrid conflict. China and Russia are often seen to actively use economic and financial means to further their strategic objectives. This Hybrid CoE Working Paper explores Chinese and Russian ideas and approaches to ‘financial warfare’, and discusses how the struggle for control over finance may prove to be shaping the geopolitical context.
A medium-length paper covering work in progress. Develops and shares ideas on Hybrid CoE’s ongoing research/workstrand themes, or analyzes actors, events or concepts that are relevant from the point of view of hybrid threats.