States and civil societies have been taking many initiatives to counter disinformation in recent years. However, not all of them can be said to be effective. This Hybrid CoE Research Report is focused on the issue of effectiveness, from the perspective of state-actors only, through the means of country case studies from Sweden, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France. Being diverse in terms of power, geopolitical situation, and systems of government, the four selected countries offer a good sample of what liberal democracies can propose to counter disinformation. This Research Report also draws some lessons from these four cases, on what an effective state response to disinformation should involve.
Thorough, in-depth study providing a comprehensive understanding of hybrid threats and phenomena. Includes relevant policy recommendations or practical conclusions.