Combining modern tools of statecraft, hybrid threats undermine the foundations of deterrence – capability, credibility and communication. This Hybrid CoE Paper develops several insights and principles to help restore these foundations and offers a framework for applying deterrence principles to deter hybrid threats. The paper also points to a potential fifth wave of deterrence theory and practice. Future tools of deterrence will be wielded less by the military and government and more by the whole of society, woven into the fabric of everyday life.
A finalized piece of analysis on a topic related to hybrid threats, based on one or several research questions. May be either a conceptual analysis or based on a concrete case study with empirical data.