Many nations including The European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats (Hybrid CoE) participating nations face significant challenges from hybrid threats involving the energy sector. The October 4 , 2018, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) indictments of Russians in the hacking of Westinghouse computer systems in Pittsburgh emphasizes the ongoing global nature of these challenges. Halting Russian gas supply to Ukraine, on multiple occasions, has affected the gas supplies of European Union (EU) states, including during a cold 2008-2009 winter, which caused widespread hardship and contributed to casualties. These actions demonstrate the real risks of Russia’s use of energy coercion.
Thorough, in-depth studies providing a comprehensive understanding of hybrid threats and phenomena. They include relevant policy recommendations or practical conclusions. The are either written by Hybrid CoE staff, are products of joint Hybrid CoE projects or are commissioned by Hybrid CoE.