‘The Landscape of Hybrid Threats – A Conceptual Model’ is the outcome of joint efforts by the European Commission and Hybrid CoE. The publication describes the components of hybrid threats in terms of actors, their objectives, tools, the domains that can be compromised, as well as the different phases of action. The model aims to facilitate the early detection of hybrid threats, the identification of gaps in preparedness, the response to such threats, and the development of effective measures to counter this complex phenomenon.
The conceptual model is designed to help identify the links between the above-mentioned pillars, as well as provide a flexible framework, a blueprint that can be adapted to the needs of each EU and NATO member state. The proposed conceptual model’s analytical framework is further validated against a number of real case studies in order to assess its validity and analytical value.