Eighteen months after the publication of Hybrid CoE’s Trend Report 5 on China’s power politics, the main trends identified (seeking great-power status, increased use of economic statecraft, and regime preservation) are still valid, but they have intensified, expanded, and changed in order of priority. This Hybrid CoE Trend Report provides an update on the trends identified in the previous report. Regime survival is now the predominant trend, followed by a “whole-of-society” approach in hybrid threat operations; using economic statecraft and setting norms and standards; increasing cooperation between Russia and China; and increasing awareness, resistance, and resilience in affected states.
An outcome of the meetings of Hybrid CoE expert pools, composed of top-ranking experts from different Hybrid CoE Participating States. Highlights trends and theme clusters related to hybrid threats, provides multiple perspectives on current security challenges and generates academic discourse on the topic. Aims to distinguish between what constitutes a threat, what appears to be a threat but is not necessarily one, and what has the potential to become one.