Ambiguity is an integral component of hybrid warfare, yet it remains an elusive concept. A closer examination of the concept reveals why the tactical application of ambiguous force has been superseded by strategic-level hybrid warfare. In this Strategic Analysis, Professor Andrew Mumford argues that the key aim of ambiguity is not necessarily to hide the true actor behind the activity, but ultimately to stymie a legitimate response.
Relatively short papers, which explain processes being hybrid threat phenomena, identify gaps in knowledge or highlighting trends and future challenges. They base on long-term expert knowledge. They are written by Hybrid CoE staff or academic and research community experts.