Malicious cyber activity has increased substantially over the past two years amid the coronavirus pandemic. This Hybrid CoE Paper describes the way in which the pandemic has amplified cyber threats and looks at state and non-state actors’ incentives for cyberattacks (financial gain, espionage, political interference, harmful attacks against critical infrastructure). The paper concludes by suggesting response measures that could be taken by NATO and the EU, as well as by national governments in building cyber resilience.
A finalized piece of analysis on a topic related to hybrid threats, based on one or several research questions. May be either a conceptual analysis or based on a concrete case study with empirical data.