This Hybrid CoE Research Report sheds light on what drives Russian and Chinese hybrid threat activities, i.e., malign activities that remain under the threshold of conflict escalation. The report does this by analysing Russia’s and China’s authoritarian systems, strategic cultures, aligning and non-aligning interests, and vulnerabilities, thus comparing their strategic intentions. The report argues that present and past commonalities in the shared understanding of self and the other, including domestic exceptionalism and international grievances, provide legitimacy for Russian and Chinese authoritarian rule domestically, and coercive, sub-threshold measures internationally.
Thorough, in-depth study providing a comprehensive understanding of hybrid threats and phenomena. Includes relevant policy recommendations or practical conclusions.