The likely future scenario for cyber defence is countering attacks similar to those that have occurred between 2010 and 2020, but with a greater number of events and increasingly complex exploits. This positions cyberattacks and cybercrimes as the most prominent part of a future hybrid threat campaign and could elevate cyber security as the most significant national security challenge to be faced. This Hybrid CoE Paper puts nation-state-sponsored cyber warfare actions into perspective as compared to cyber actions used for espionage or cybercrime and argues how both national security policy and cyber security practices should change to counter looming cyber defence challenges.
A finalized piece of analysis on a topic related to hybrid threats, based on one or several research questions. May be either a conceptual analysis or based on a concrete case study with empirical data.