Nuclear energy and the current security environment in the era of hybrid threats

Energy is a potential tool for geopolitical influence. Nuclear energy is no different from oil and gas in this respect. Many of the hybrid threats relating to nuclear energy are not direct and obvious, but hidden and derive from spill-over effects. Nuclear power plant building projects have embedded hybrid threat potential, where spill-overs to different domains such as intelligence, legal, economic, information, social, infrastructure, political and military can be used to exert powerful leverage.

The research report is a joint publication by four Centres of Excellence: the Hybrid CoE, the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), the NATO Stratcom Centre of Excellence (StratCom CoE) and the NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence (ENSECCOE). It includes three case studies: Ostrovets nuclear power plant (NPP) in Belarus, the Paks NPP project in Hungary, and the Hanhikivi NPP project in Finland.

The case studies revealed that the Russian state nuclear energy company Rosatom should be examined as a significant actor in the European nuclear energy sector due to the fact that it also has ambitions outside of Europe. Rosatom is part of the Russian state’s foreign policy and any deal for nuclear power plant construction has objectives aside from economic ones.

Assessing Energy Dependency in the Age of Hybrid Threats

Many nations including The European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats (Hybrid CoE) participating nations face significant challenges from hybrid threats involving the energy sector. The October 4 , 2018, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) indictments of Russians in the hacking of Westinghouse computer systems in Pittsburgh emphasizes the ongoing global nature of these challenges. Halting Russian gas supply to Ukraine, on multiple occasions, has affected the gas supplies of European Union (EU) states, including during a cold 2008-2009 winter, which caused widespread hardship and contributed to casualties. These actions demonstrate the real risks of Russia’s use of energy coercion.

Helsinki in the era of hybrid threats – Hybrid influencing and the city

Helsinki City has launched a report on hybrid threats and the kind of hybrid influencing that the city might encounter. The report is based on a review of literature and public documents concerning the topic, a survey targeted at members of the Helsinki City Council, and interviews with a wide range of experts. Hybrid CoE provided background support and supervision for the report.

The report is also available in Swedish and Finnish.

Addressing Hybrid Threats

Addressing Hybrid Threats, put together by Gregory F. Treverton and his team gives a rich understanding of what we mean when we talk about hybrid threats – what kind of threats we are facing and what tools are being used against the democratic states. The report is published by CATS in cooperation with Hybrid CoE.

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Resilience

Nuclear energy and the current security environment in the era of hybrid threats

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Resilience

Assessing Energy Dependency in the Age of Hybrid Threats

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Hybrid influencing

Helsinki in the era of hybrid threats – Hybrid influencing and the city

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Hybrid influencing

Addressing Hybrid Threats

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