Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 24: Ambiguity in hybrid warfare

by Andrew Mumford - September 17, 2020

Ambiguity is an integral component of hybrid warfare, yet it remains an elusive concept. Understanding the concept allows to explain why the tactical application of ambiguous force has been superseded by strategic-level hybrid warfare. In this Strategic Analysis Professor Andrew Mumford redirects the discussion on ambiguity in modern hybrid warfare through an assessment of its… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 23: One China under media heaven: How Beijing hones its skills in information operations

by Ivana Karásková - June 26, 2020

Traditionally, China’s influence toolbox has contained a mixture of public diplomacy and propaganda targeting political and economic elites, but in recent years, it has added new tools and techniques to its influence portfolio and focused on new targets. As a result, it is highly likely that China is now able to penetrate societies abroad more… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 22: A warning system for hybrid threats – is it possible?

by Sebastiaan Rietjens - June 5, 2020

A warning system is a crucial ingredient in countering hybrid threats. A general problem is that hybrid threats are ambiguous and fuzzy and we lack fixed standards to adequately address them. This makes devising a warning system for such threats intrinsically difficult and challenging. This Strategic Analysis-paper addresses this call for attention and explores how… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 21: Cyber power is changing the concept of war

by Josef Schroefl - March 16, 2020

“A first strike cyber Blitzkrieg that spreads across military and non-military sectors is a worrying scenario. Even if we have not yet experienced an actual cyber Blitzkrieg in real life, we are at a crossroads when it comes to determining whether cyber should be compared with strategic weapons, and the destruction it causes with conventional… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 20: States vs. non-state actors – a public international law perspective

by Agata Kleczkowska - January 29, 2020

As non-state actors (NSA) such as corporations and non-governmental organizations, as well as armed non-state actors increasingly interact with states, new legal instruments are needed to regulate their status, role and responsibilities at the international level. – writes Agata Kleczkowska, Assistant Professor, Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In the current… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 19: The ice dragon – Chinese interests in the Arctic

by Camilla T. N. Sørensen - November 5, 2019

The Arctic region is identified in Chinese strategic considerations and plans as the “new strategic frontier”, where the great powers will compete in the coming years. This links up with the “Made in China 2025” strategy, which identifies key sectors or industries, such as AI, 5G, maritime and space technology, in which China wants to… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 18: China in the grey zone

by Kathleen H. Hicks Joseph Federici Connor Akiyama - September 2, 2019

“Although China is not the only actor using grey zone approaches to seek geopolitical advantage, the long-term consequences of its efforts may be the most disconcerting for the continuation of a liberal global order”. – write Kathleen H. Hicks, Joseph Federici, and Connor Akiyama from the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington,… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 17: Private military companies – a growing instrument in Russia’s foreign and security policy toolbox

by Margarete Klein - June 12, 2019

Although Russian PMCs form a diverse group of actors, they provide the Russian leadership with a useful instrument for acting as a force multiplier for the Russian armed forces, for pursuing hybrid operations under the guise of plausible deniability, and for making inroads into regions from which Russia has been absent for a long time…. Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 16: Combating the manipulation of information – a French case

by Marine Guillaume - May 3, 2019

What if these campaigns, which seem to be increasingly integrated into strategies of interference and power waged by external actors, were actually able to distort the election results and therefore violate the sovereignty of states? – asks Marine Guillaume, Digital Ambassador Deputy at the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs and Lecturer at the… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 15: How states use non-state actors. A modus operandi for covert state subversion and malign networks

by Magnus Normark - April 12, 2019

States with a strong and long-term interest in influencing, manipulating and creating events in other countries to promote their interests will probably utilize different non-state actors in a systematic manner. Directing activity through non-state entities presents an opportunity to conduct activities of a harmful nature against other countries covertly. Acting covertly through a third entity might even… Read more