Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 21: Cyber power is changing the concept of war

by Josef Schroefl - March 16, 2020

“A first strike cyber Blitzkrieg that spreads across military and non-military sectors is a worrying scenario. Even if we have not yet experienced an actual cyber Blitzkrieg in real life, we are at a crossroads when it comes to determining whether cyber should be compared with strategic weapons, and the destruction it causes with conventional… Read more


Hybrid CoE Strategic Analysis 20: States vs. non-state actors – a public international law perspective

by Agata Kleczkowska - January 29, 2020

As non-state actors (NSA) such as corporations and non-governmental organizations, as well as armed non-state actors increasingly interact with states, new legal instruments are needed to regulate their status, role and responsibilities at the international level. – writes Agata Kleczkowska, Assistant Professor, Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In the current… Read more


Strategic Analysis 5/2019: The ice dragon – Chinese interests in the Arctic

by Camilla T. N. Sørensen - November 5, 2019

The Arctic region is identified in Chinese strategic considerations and plans as the “new strategic frontier”, where the great powers will compete in the coming years. This links up with the “Made in China 2025” strategy, which identifies key sectors or industries, such as AI, 5G, maritime and space technology, in which China wants to… Read more


Strategic Analysis 4/2019: China in the grey zone

by Kathleen H. Hicks Joseph Federici Connor Akiyama - September 2, 2019

“Although China is not the only actor using grey zone approaches to seek geopolitical advantage, the long-term consequences of its efforts may be the most disconcerting for the continuation of a liberal global order”. – write Kathleen H. Hicks, Joseph Federici, and Connor Akiyama from the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington,… Read more


Strategic Analysis 3/2019: Private military companies – a growing instrument in Russia’s foreign and security policy toolbox

by Margarete Klein - June 12, 2019

Although Russian PMCs form a diverse group of actors, they provide the Russian leadership with a useful instrument for acting as a force multiplier for the Russian armed forces, for pursuing hybrid operations under the guise of plausible deniability, and for making inroads into regions from which Russia has been absent for a long time…. Read more


Strategic Analysis 2/2019: Combating the manipulation of information – a French case

by Marine Guillaume - May 3, 2019

What if these campaigns, which seem to be increasingly integrated into strategies of interference and power waged by external actors, were actually able to distort the election results and therefore violate the sovereignty of states? – asks Marine Guillaume, Digital Ambassador Deputy at the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs and Lecturer at the… Read more


Strategic Analysis 1/2019: How states use non-state actors. A modus operandi for covert state subversion and malign networks

by Magnus Normark - April 12, 2019

States with a strong and long-term interest in influencing, manipulating and creating events in other countries to promote their interests will probably utilize different non-state actors in a systematic manner. Directing activity through non-state entities presents an opportunity to conduct activities of a harmful nature against other countries covertly. Acting covertly through a third entity might even… Read more


Strategic Analysis December 2018: The Kerch Strait skirmish: a Law of the Sea perspective

by Dmitry Gorenburg - January 4, 2019

“The November 25 naval skirmish between Russian and Ukrainian forces in the Kerch Strait highlighted the fraught legal status of the strait and the Azov Sea, a status that Russia has been exploiting in recent months to exert political and economic pressure on Ukraine” writes Dmitry Gorenburg, a Senior Research Scientist in the Strategy, Policy, Plans, and Programs… Read more


Strategic Analysis November 2018: Going Beyond Resilience. A revitalised approach to countering hybrid threats

by Heine Sørensen & Dorthe Bach Nyemann - January 8, 2019

“Whereas resilience is a necessary building block in creating a coherent strategy towards Russia, it is nevertheless insufficient when it comes to deterring Russia from unwanted ads”, writes Heine Sørensen and Dorthe Bach Nyemann from the Institute for Strategy at the Royal Danish Defence College.


Strategic Analysis October 2018: Post-Event Analysis of the Hybrid Threat Security Environment: Assessment of Influence Communication Operations

by Rubén Arcos - November 7, 2018

Besides the attribution challenges posed by covert influence actions, there is a need to develop effective frameworks for assessing and evaluating the effectiveness of overt and covert persuasive communications employed in the hybrid threat security environment, writes Rubén Arcos, lecturer in communication sciences at Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid.