“A first strike cyber Blitzkrieg that spreads across military and non-military sectors is a worrying scenario. Even if we have not yet experienced an actual cyber Blitzkrieg in real life, we are at a crossroads when it comes to determining whether cyber should be compared with strategic weapons, and the destruction it causes with conventional… Read more
As non-state actors (NSA) such as corporations and non-governmental organizations, as well as armed non-state actors increasingly interact with states, new legal instruments are needed to regulate their status, role and responsibilities at the international level. – writes Agata Kleczkowska, Assistant Professor, Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In the current… Read more
The Arctic region is identified in Chinese strategic considerations and plans as the “new strategic frontier”, where the great powers will compete in the coming years. This links up with the “Made in China 2025” strategy, which identifies key sectors or industries, such as AI, 5G, maritime and space technology, in which China wants to… Read more
“Although China is not the only actor using grey zone approaches to seek geopolitical advantage, the long-term consequences of its efforts may be the most disconcerting for the continuation of a liberal global order”. – write Kathleen H. Hicks, Joseph Federici, and Connor Akiyama from the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington,… Read more
Although Russian PMCs form a diverse group of actors, they provide the Russian leadership with a useful instrument for acting as a force multiplier for the Russian armed forces, for pursuing hybrid operations under the guise of plausible deniability, and for making inroads into regions from which Russia has been absent for a long time…. Read more
What if these campaigns, which seem to be increasingly integrated into strategies of interference and power waged by external actors, were actually able to distort the election results and therefore violate the sovereignty of states? – asks Marine Guillaume, Digital Ambassador Deputy at the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs and Lecturer at the… Read more
States with a strong and long-term interest in influencing, manipulating and creating events in other countries to promote their interests will probably utilize different non-state actors in a systematic manner. Directing activity through non-state entities presents an opportunity to conduct activities of a harmful nature against other countries covertly. Acting covertly through a third entity might even… Read more
“The November 25 naval skirmish between Russian and Ukrainian forces in the Kerch Strait highlighted the fraught legal status of the strait and the Azov Sea, a status that Russia has been exploiting in recent months to exert political and economic pressure on Ukraine” writes Dmitry Gorenburg, a Senior Research Scientist in the Strategy, Policy, Plans, and Programs… Read more
“Whereas resilience is a necessary building block in creating a coherent strategy towards Russia, it is nevertheless insufficient when it comes to deterring Russia from unwanted ads”, writes Heine Sørensen and Dorthe Bach Nyemann from the Institute for Strategy at the Royal Danish Defence College.
Besides the attribution challenges posed by covert influence actions, there is a need to develop effective frameworks for assessing and evaluating the effectiveness of overt and covert persuasive communications employed in the hybrid threat security environment, writes Rubén Arcos, lecturer in communication sciences at Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid.